URBAN LEARNING - Integrative energy planning of urban areas
Collective learning for improved governance

Framework Conditions 

In Urban learning cities, the existing strategic and legal framework haven’t integrated energy and urban planning procedures. Following own strategic and legal framework, the energy performance of buildings, energy planning and climate change actions have developed Action plans, Refurbishment programs for buildings, Subsidies for use of renewable energy and climate change adaptation strategies, etc. These mustn’t be left as standalone documents and need to be transposed in a proper way in urban development documents i.e. they can be basis to define optimal solutions considering the strategic objectives e.g. use of innovative technologies for district energy production to reduce carbon footprint of buildings. Since the city administration does not have a clear mandate for energy planning and usually is focused on a specific sector e.g. infrastructure or strategic development or climate change mitigation or urban planning, etc. a beneficial exchange of cross sector information will define consolidated suggestions specific for the city or the neighbourhood level and enable improvement of a specific target. These suggestions are much easier to place in existing administrative procedures and to be followed throughout the implementation.

 The following messages of UL partners can motivate others to analyse framework conditions on a city level. Under Toolbox elements the content of strategic and legal documents provides insight in cross sector issues considered in UL cities.

 

Energy strategy

Purpose of the element

Energy strategy is a Master plan providing a comprehensive energy integrated strategy combined with urban development. For each energy source (gas, electricity, cooling and heating), the document assesses the prospective development of energy grids at city scale

Description of the element

All the authorities in charge of a public service for district heating or cooling supply in use on January 1st, 2009 are obliged to draw up a master plan for this network before December 31st, 2018. In order to be relevant, the document must integrate, in addition to studying the possibilities of achieving a 50% production rate from renewable and recovery energy sources, an evaluation of densifying and extending possibilities for this network or even interconnecting it with other nearby networks.

Key benefits

Energy grids development potential, increase the rate from renewable sources, interconnection between the different grids

Status (planned/in-use)

Planned

More info

 

City

Paris

Feasibility study for different energy solutions – Optionenstudie Donaufeld

Purpose of the element

Feasibility study of different integrated energy solutions for a development area (5700 housing units), comprehensive comparison of common solutions (district heating, gas) with innovative energy solutions regarding life cycle aspects

Description of the element

Method for ecological, economic and technical assessment of heat supply solutions for urban development areas. It was used only for some lighthouse projects and has the character of a study.

The analysis showed that different kinds of solutions need different kinds of criteria in planning. E.g. for a micro-grid solution the building density should not be too low or too high depending on the potential for renewables in this area. Furthermore, it is possible to identify the advantages of differences in uses (e.g. use the heat of office buildings for cooling in residential buildings). Moreover, it is crucial to take the life cycle emissions and costs into account instead of investment costs. Such analysis can help to clarify very early in planning, if a grid solution is recommended (especially district heating) or not (single supply of buildings while using RES). It can serve as a helpful tool to find the best solution of an energy supply for a certain area in terms of ecological, economic and technical feasibility.

Key benefits

 

Status (planned/in-use)

In Use

More info

www.wien.gv.at/stadtentwicklung/energie/pdf/
energieversorgung-donaufeld.pdf (only in German)

City

Vienna

 

 

 

Vienna building code

Purpose of the element

Strengthening a high quality on energy efficiency in buildings as well as the use of renewable energy sources

Description of the element

The Building Code of Vienna is the legal basis for spatial/urban planning as well as building regulations. Vienna being a province can adapt this law.

As of yet, there are no energy-related objectives. However, the law does refer to energy. The paragraphs for energy efficiency of buildings are according to national regulations. New buildings should be equipped with a highly energy efficient system; preferably renewable energy sources, combined heat and power, district heating in particular from renewable energy sources or highly efficient combined heat and power or heat pumps (§ 118 para. 3 Building Code of Vienna). A single clause states that this system must be technologically or economically feasible. If developers argue that it is not feasible, they may still opt for fossil energy supply (e.g. gas) and do not need to use renewable energy sources. The Building Code also obliges developers to use the roof of new non-residential buildings for solar energy. § 118 para. 3b of the Building Code for Vienna defines 1 kWp per 100 m² of ground floor area as maximum capacity. But it could be reduced to 0,7 kWp if additional energy efficiency measures are used.

Furthermore, the law provides the framework for urban contracts (§1a Building Code of Vienna). Thus, the city could negotiate with the building developer, land-owner or investor and require financial contributions from the external contractor for public infrastructure and thereby exceed obligations. However, it is not fixed which energy related obligations could be a part of such contracts.

Outlook:

The Building Code of Vienna is the most important legal instrument for urban und energy planning. It has the potential to regulate energy matters through new zoning or to link zoning categories to energy issues such as district heating.

Key benefits

 

Status (planned/in-use)

In use

More info

https://www.wien.gv.at/recht/landesrecht-wien/rechtsvorschriften/html/b0200000.htm (in German, latest edition)

City

Vienna

 

 

 

Green Deal: Districts without natural gas

Purpose of the element

Purpose of this instrument is:

Development of natural gas free districts;

Knowledge sharing and development;

Generating input to adaptations to needed conditions in legislation, financing constructions, responsibilities and authorities, planning and direction of adaptations;

To gain experience, to draught the process and develop packages to let arise a foundation and ownership by citizens to the intended changes.

Description of the element

The Green Deal enables cities to heat dwellings without natural gas.

Key benefits

experimental space, scale-up possibilities

Status (planned/in-use)

in use

More info

http://www.greendeals.nl/gd112-aardgasvrije-wijken/

City

30 cities (including Amsterdam and Zaanstad), 12 provinces, 5 grid companies, 3 ministries in the Netherlands 

 

 

 

Energy planning guidlines

Purpose of the element

Main goals for integrative energy planning guidelines are reducing use of fossil fuels, mitigating CO2 emissions, reducing energy consumption, increasing energy efficiency, increasing use of RES, refurbishment of existing urban fabric (neighbourhoods built before 1987).

Description of the element

Those goals need to be divided on at least two levels, strategic–long term and operational-short term (bridge the gap between energy strategic documents and action plans and urban planning documents). Guidelines should also define:

Need of long term energy (overall) strategy;

Need of establishing short term goals – transition, priorities;

Need of establishing set of indicators (sustainability – connect with climate and environmental goals);

Need of data collecting;

Need of establishing energy planning and monitoring body or department;

Need of legislation harmonisation on city and state level (energy, environment, urban planning, mobility, providers, distributors…)

Need of drafting urban and energy study for urban planning documents

Key benefits

Defining energy issues and haromizing strategic and urban planning documents

Status (planned/in-use)

planned

More info

 

City

Zagreb